The City Of London Information
19Th And 20Th Centuries
The City of London constituted the centre and bedrock of Britain's financial services industry, but since the early twentieth century this has been in decline as major financial institutions have relocated to other British cities (as well as overseas), and many places synonymous with London are now referred to by their postcode: for instance, the 'City'is more widely known now as 'EC3', a postcode district which covers a large part of south eastern London.
The City is still a major world financial centre, hosting the headquarters of banks, foreign exchange brokers and asset management companies, and despite the credit crunch that began in 2007, remains home to Europe's largest clearing house facilities for the processing of international bank payments, This Week In London (thisismargate.co.uk). Definitions changes reflecting the respective districts are still. Yum. The Good Egg may have messy twirled innards, but the Stoke Newington restaurant has a pretty new sister. The sibling trade is moving east for its first-come, first-served queue of queues.
Although there is no contemporary written evidence, the area now known as London was clearly an important settlement long before the Romans arrived in Britain. The Roman name Londinium is first recorded c. 95 and is thought to be derived from the River Fleet, which still flows beneath the city. The Roman settlement sustained a relatively large town or city status for 400 years, although there were also at least two intermediate periods of abandonment leading to its classification as a "period of uncertain occupation".
Until 886 the London area, or parts of it, were at different times under the control of: the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria; Viking invaders; the Danelaw; and the Kingdom of Wessex. In that year Alfred the Great recaptured London, and in 902 issued a charter proclaiming London a city. Nowhere does the document state that London was "the" city only that it was in a Aelfwald (Ælfweald's) kingdom. Alfred the Great managed to unite English Kingdoms for a period after his victory at the Battle of Edington.
Treaties in 886 and 897 divided England between Alfred's sons, with the London area falling in the kingdom of his youngest son, Aethelred. Aethelred died young in 911, and the London area fell to his brother Edmund I. Edmund was able to invade Wessex in 915 and temporarily reunite the Anglo-Saxon lands. When Centurion Julius Agricola arrived in what is now Middlesex, it was part of a territory controlled by the Celtic Trinovantes, but the core of their power was further east, in Essex county.
The Romans arrived in just 29AD but quickly moved on from Britain after the Roman campaigns into Wales and Persia. They gradually gained ground and in 43AD took over London under the command of future emperor Vespasian. Throughout this period, however, the Residents of Lundenburh were led by an Ohthere. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle describes Cnut's takeover of London in 1016. The origin of the name is not clear, but it is believed to come from the term 'london'contained in the Old Celtic toponym.
Arms, Motto And Flag
The arms, crest and supporters derive from those granted by the College of Arms on 20 June 1827. The arms represent the Citys wealth, as shown by the two golden piles (an old term for gold bars) on the black background in reference to the City of London’s status as the world’s leading market in international finance. The chief or upper third of the shield is charged with a red cross—Saint George’s Cross—a symbol of England, representing national and civic identity.
The Tudor rose in the bottom right corner represents England (again), while on the left is a half-sun symbolising either America or Japan depending on whether one looks at it with the white side or dark side towards the flag. London’s motto, “Domine dirige nos” (Lord, direct us), is shared by the Faroe Islands and is also the motto of the Lord Mayor of London acting as herald of the city. The design on the shield shows a cross of Saint George (patron saint of England) surmounted by a crown.
The design on the seal has changed over time. Until 17 March 2004 it showed the image of Queen Elizabeth I and from 18 March 2004 it has shown an image of Saint Paul's Cathedral. The crest on top of the helm was originally a dragon; this may have derived from various much earlier forms, in which there were either six or nine dragons. The shield consists of three vertical purple stripes on a gold background, representing the City's status as a Roman town (colonia), emphasised by two gold horizontal bars on the top and bottom of the shield.
The current insignia was adopted in 1191, but from the 13th century to 1835 the same device was used with the bars in the reverse order. The shield is surmounted by a beaver, whose habitat at the time of London's founding made it an appropriate heraldic symbol. [. The shield is the main focus and normally the first element of the full achievement granted by the College of Arms. The chief officer of the Corporation, known as the Lord Mayor, has her own arms.
Given that much of the city centre is lower than 25 m above sea level, numerous sources consistently describe the weather in London as "mild" by English standards. The average temperature range at Greenwich is 13. 0–15. 9 °C (55. 4–60. 6 °F). The warmest month is July and the coldest is January: these have recorded ranges of 19. 0–22. 8 °C (66. 2–72. 9 °F) and −1. 8 to −0. 6 °C (30. 6 to 31.
1 °F). The City of London is on relatively low lying ground in the centre of Greater London. However, it has a higher elevation than outlying parts of Greater London, especially at its eastern end away from the River Thames which forms a part of the county's southwestern boundary. Nearby garden squares include Lincoln's Inn Fields to the north, Bloomsbury Square and Russell Square on the east, and Covent Garden and Soho Square to the south, with Great Scotland Yard just beyond the northern perimeter.
Central London's main cycle routes pass through the City. There are several initiatives aimed at making cycling easier and safer, including a pilot project for a "cycling congestion charge" for lorries using Bank junction. However, sharing streets with office workers on bicycles is considered by some to be a major problem, blamed for causing dangerous near-misses. Pollution in the Square Mile is high by European standards. At peak commuting times pollution levels are 70% higher than the regulated maximum levels set out by EU legislation.
Cycling conditions within the Square Mile are poor, with some sources describing it as "The worst cycling environment in Britain". There are no cycle lanes on most of the main roads, and the layout of streets makes cycling difficult. Transport for London does not include the City in its Cycle Superhighways network, although it is accessed via routes CS3 and CS9. Forty-six per cent of journeys made in the City by rush hour commuters travel by bicycle, compared to a figure of 5% for all of London.
For cyclists, the City provides cycle racks at major points throughout the Square Mile and offers covered cycle parking in a number of multi-storey car parks. The mobility scheme, cycle hire scheme (operated by hiring bicycles and docking stations across the city) was relaunched in 2010 and has stations within about ten minutes'walk of the Square Mile along both banks of the Thames. The prevailing wind direction is south-westerly, from the North Atlantic Current.
The City is divided into 25 wards. One alderman (elected by the voters of their wards) and one sheriff (chosen by the aldermen from amongst their number) are elected for a period of one year by City businesses in February following a local election. The election on 9 October 2014 returned a Labour Party majority, which is unusual because it has no equivalent in other local governments in the UK. The Alderman and Sheriff are ex officio members of the Business Committee of the City Corporation, as is the Common Serjeant, who is also Head of Legal Department for HM Courts Service.
The City has one of the most diverse array of election systems in the UK. There are 6 electoral wards in the City named Cheap, Cordwainer, Langbourn, Bridge, Guildhall and Vintry – all of which contain two Common Councilmen and two Aldermen (except for Cordwainer Ward which only has 1 Common Councilman). The 6 wards are each known as a "Wards of the City" with a number. Each Wards elects both a Common Councilman and an Alderman to the Court of Common Council by a first past the post voting system.
In 2002, the small City ward of Bridge contained over twice as many voters as the much larger and mostly rural ward of Farringdon Within which had over seven times as many voters. This imbalance  means that the votes of Bridge residents carry approximately 3½ times more weight than voters from the much larger and mostly rural ward of Farringdon Within. This anomaly has become a matter of concern for some, in particular since Bridge was abolished in 2006.
Because there are more businesses than voters, the City of London uses a different electoral system from other British cities. Businesses don’t have to register or vote. Voters vote twice for their preferred candidates, once in their ward and again in their business vote. The franchise is unusual, and there have been periodic controversies. Until the early 1980s the City of London Corporation, the small city-state within the capital that has its own government and laws, elected three MPs as in any other constituency.
In 2010, the City of London elected a total of 21 representatives to serve on the 25 strong City of London Corporation, which is the local authority as well as the governing body for the area. The elections are held every four years. The nearest weather station to is the London Weather Centre at Kingsway/ Holborn. Like the original, it takes cash only; if youre after a breakfast in a hurry, order to go and seek out the benches looking onto Kingsley Court, or outside Donatellos Italian.
Gardens And Public Art
The Corporation of the City of London controls the layout and maintenance of a number of open spaces within the Square Mile (including gardens, cemeteries and small parks). Unlike most other areas of Greater London, the Corporation is responsible for all of these spaces. The majority are concentrated in the eastern and western fringes of the City, although Regent's Park in the north-west also forms part of this green belt. Land in central London is very expensive and has been a factor in preventing the construction of new developments in central London.
However Garden Bridge and Sky Gardens do show that attractions can be built with support from local authorities. A few open spaces are directly managed by the City, including Ryton's Park (closed in 2012 for restoration) and a small area opposite Hampton Court House which is managed in partnership with Esher Council. Many other gardens and small green spaces are managed by Residents'Associations. The best known of these include Chamomile Lawn, Bryant's Copse, Monks'Field, Raines Park, Fisher's Green, the English Garden (near Thames Ditton railway station), Syon Lane Allotments and Goatacre Wood.
The City has no sizeable parks within its boundary, but does have a network of a large number of gardens and small open spaces maintained by the Corporation. The largest open space is Parliament Hill Fields which covers 38 hectares (94 acres). It was opened to the public in 1888 by the City Corporation; previously it had been used as a military training ground. The Gardens are Grade II. The City of London Corporation owns and maintains over 1,200 public trees and over 700 public gardens and open spaces.
In 1985, the City became an administrative area within Greater London; however, the City of London today retains some significant powers that other local authorities do not have. Corporation authorities continue to exist and are responsible for economic development and regeneration, roads, public transport, some aspects of health services, social services, libraries, policing, and more (although this last has since the Metropolitan Police Act 1829 become the responsibility of a separate City of London Police).
The Corporation's territory is now recognised as the City of London, the smallest region of England. It retains a corporate, quasi-county status, and some City residents still describe it as a city. However, The Queen's Officers of State for Cities and the Boroughs are based at <!– London uses single transferable vote in electing members of its administration (Mayor, Lord Mayor, etc. ) —>City Hall and not Parliament. The City is a local authority for most purposes (though it does not have its own civil parishes and therefore has no town council members).
The City of London Police, which is responsible for law enforcement within the City, is one of the few remaining examples of a traditional British 'not-for-profit'policing model. London is unique in the world in that it is an entirely ceremonial county, with the Lord Mayor of London appointed as its Lord Lieutenant, and the ancient Corporation of London that handles local affairs. The current position of Lord Mayor has been held by a member of the Norman-Welsh Wren family since December 2008.
The City of London is an ancient corporation with origins that pre-date the Norman Conquest. It has been closely involved with the governance of the UK and its capital, being responsible for education, social care, correction, governance and development control, in addition to some financial regulation. The City of London is also a ceremonial county and area of England, with a Lord Mayor. The Corporation itself forms the lower part of the local government of the City of London, and only has nominal though much cherished links to the wider city.
The City of London forms the main financial district and the lower part of the city region. Historically it was known as the "Square Mile" because it is approximately a square on plan, although it is now around three quarters of a mile across. The change in character over the years from predominantly commercial to much broader economic interests has brought the location of a number of government offices to the City. The predominant feature of the City's central area is its skyline which is dominated by the towers of banks and insurance companies, particularly near St Paul's Cathedral.
Some commentators argue that this is unsustainable in terms of energy usage and aesthetics. The City is a major centre for national and international banks, including the Japanese arm of Bank of America and Chinese savings bank ICBC. The London Stock Exchange is also an important financial market for global investors. Banks have traditionally been concentrated in the eastern part of the City, around Threadneedle Street and Old Broad Street. More recent arrivals to this part of the City include American investment bank Morgan Stanley, German global investment banking firm Deutsche Bank, Japanese global investment banking firm Nomura, Dutch global investment bank Rabobank International and South African bank Standard Bank.
Mayfair has historically served as the hinterland for London's "Square Mile" financial service industry, with a large concentration of luxury hotels and many offices used by international corporations. However, the concentration of wealth in this area has caused Mayfair property prices to fall dramatically in recent years, leading to an influx of wealthy buyers from Asia and the Middle East looking for investment properties and a high-end residential property market characterized by significant price fluctuations.
Though not a dominant cultural force in the way that it once was, the City remains one of the most important global financial centres alongside New York, Tokyo, and Hong Kong. The City forms a nearly continuous commercial zone up the main financial artery of Britain's economy—the "Cantium Coast" or City State, an area of only 1. 05 square miles (2. 7 km)—but has a GDP approaching UK£170bn, which is equivalent to Hong Kong, almost twice Toronto in North America, and more than ten times Adelaide or Brisbane.
The City of London is a major business hub, a European financial centre and the location of the largest cluster of banking and insurance companies in the world. This is due to the City’s unusual position as the only remaining entirely privately owned urban area in England. The most significant of these are Kensington Gardens, Hyde Park and Holland Park. Hyde Park is the largest of central London's Royal Parks and extends from Marble Arch to size 12 thick tights the edge of Kensington Gardens.
Wallingford Castle was a major medieval castle situated in Wallingford in the English county of Oxfordshire, perched high on Whitten Hill. It stood overlooking the River Thames 300 feet (100 metres) above sea level on a slight bend in the river. Although there had been a fortification on the hill in Anglo-Saxon times, the Norman motte and bailey castle was built by Maurice, Count of Mortain, half-brother of William the Conqueror, soon after the Norman Conquest of England.
The strategic location of Wallingford gave it great importance in subsequent centuries and it was involved in many conflicts between the English and the Welsh. It was destroyed by King Henry I of England following an 1137 rebellion against royal authority. In the Battle of Hastings Godwinson's heavy cavalry, the huscarls, proved crucial in helping to halt the armored charge of cerberrmen (formed by William's top nobles), preventing them from reaching and breaking through the English shield wall, thus giving the infantry armed with axes, spears, and halberds an opportunity to counterattack.
As part of this the Domesday Book attests that King Harold had a force of 4000 men specifically "equipped for war" at London to guard against William's threatened invasion. The end of the first phase of the conflict can therefore be defined as Hastings followed by the pillaging and occupation of an English town, Stamford, by William. The war proper can be considered to have started with these two events, but there was also a period of almost six years between these occurrences when William and his forces ruled northern England, larger parts of geoblog.
wordpress. com/2017/02/16/how-to-create-a-great-blog-post-description/. Edward was able to reach London and defeat the remaining forces, which resulted in the Treaty of Alton. William was confirmed as King, but he was forced to swear allegiance to Edward; however, this victory did not last long for either party: Williams grip on the throne tightened and he had many of his enemies executed; on the other hand, Edward’s health continued to deteriorate until his death in 1066. William the Conqueror, along with his half-brother Odo, marched into Sussex and occupied the capital of Chichester.
He was then crowned King of England at the Old Minster in Winchester on Christmas Day 1066. The native elite however remained in power and William had to repress rebellions and uprisings over many years to establish his control. William ordered the construction of massive earthworks across Southwark to protect his base at Rochester Castle. The late 11th-century chronicler William of Malmesbury wrote that ". he dug a trench from London Bridge as far as Southwark, filled it with fascines, and made it almost an island.
Police And Security
There are 25 police Community Support Officers (PSOs) spread around the ward areas of the City; they are not armed. Unlike the Metropolitan Police, City of London Police do not conduct any stop and search activity; however, PSOs will issue fixed penalty notices for a range of traffic offences. Traffic enforcement cameras were introduced to reduce collisions and manage traffic congestion in 2002. The City has a total of five such cameras: three on Cheapside, one on Gracechurch Street and one on Wood Street.
The Gracechurch Street camera enforces both parking and general traffic prohibitions. The force was formed in 1839 by Robert Peel under the Metropolitan Police Act 1829. The City Police had a unique power to set their own boundaries, which were independent of the London County Council, and to determine how their policing budget should be spent. Peculiarly, unlike police forces elsewhere in Britain or the United States at the time, the City Police did not operate its own Custody Suite at Guildhall Yard or employ detention officers; this function was carried out by the city's magistrates'courts until these were transferred to the jurisdiction of the Metropolitan Police.
There is a significant police presence in the City, with two major police stations at Bishopsgate and Wood Street. The City of London Police headquarters have been at Guildhall Yard East since 1990, replacing Borough High Street. The force is responsible for policing the entire financial district and has policed the area since 1839. It is the smallest territorial police force in England and Wales, with a core of 1,100 officers and 3,200 volunteers.
There is also a station at Winchmore Hill close to an eastern edge of the City. In addition to the Metropolitan Police service for all of Greater London, the City has its own police force: the City of London Police (COLP). 1 COLP consists of over 1,830 sworn police officers and is responsible for patrolling the entire City area. It is led by a Chief Superintendent (the position held by Chris Greany) and divided into ten divisions, each led by a Superintendent.
Its headquarters is situated in Wood Street, near London Bridge. It is a City Corporation, with powers and privileges far beyond those of the cities of Westminster or York, for example. The Corporation has taken a long time to evolve. Today, City livery companies play an active role in the governance of the City. These have included Merchant Taylors'and Drapers'companies, for example, which often began as trade guilds or fraternities associated with particular crafts.
The City of London falls under the jurisdiction of the Metropolitan Police for most crimes; its three centres of policing are all located in or around the financial district. City police station serve the 'square mile'and the surrounding neighbourhoods, Trinity Street police station serves the western neighbourhoods on both sides of Bishopsgate, and Snow Hill police station serves the extreme north-west. These stations are all accessible by public transport, with City and Trinity Street stations on London Underground's Circle, Hammersmith & City and Bank lines, and Snow Hill station on the Docklands Light Railway.
The force also has responsibility for the small parish of Finsbury within the City. The main entrance is at the western end of Houndsditch which connects to Minories and Basinghall Street. Finsbury Park police station is a two-minute walk from the park; the Hackney Road police station is on the eastern end of Shoreditch High Street. There are no police stations in the walled section of the City, but there is a security presence through wardens, as well as some more permanent residences.
The City is served by many Transport for London bus services connecting it to all parts of London. Like the rest of Greater London, the National Rail stations within the city are operated by Network Rail. Great Portland Street and Bayswater are both served by the Circle, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines in Zone 1; there are also two other National Rail stations within the boundaries of Inner London : Hampstead Heath and Queensbury.
The City of London is bounded by the City of Westminster to the west, the London Borough of Islington to the north, the London Borough of Camden to the north east, and the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea and City of Westminster to the south. The River Thames passes through the eastern part of the city. Before boundary changes introduced in 1994, referred to as inner London, these were four individual London boroughs. The City lies on the north bank of the River Thames, which runs through it.
To the west of the river is one of the main roads to northern England first laid out in Roman times, Ermine Street (today partly followed by the A10 then called Great North Road). The etymology is uncertain: but in the modern sense, 'West'by City standards had been when leaving the city and heading for Westminster. There are many other companies providing services in the City, such as maintenance contractors. The Corporation of London also has its own voluntary aided fire-brigade, the London Fire Brigade.
The Temple is the district immediately to the west of Fleet Street and the Strand. It was formerly a liberty in its own right and was governed by the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Common Council of the City of London Corporation, independent from the metropolitan authority of the County of London. Today, it is largely taken up by the Inns of Court, but it still has many local residents – mainly barristers (members of one or other of the four Inns of Court) who reside in chambers here as their employment requires that they live within 6 minutes'walk.
The Temple also known as the Inner Temple and Middle Temple is one of the four Inns of Court. It is located in the City of London, near the Royal Courts of Justice, and within the London Borough of fitzrovia. The other three Inns are located in Leighton Buzzard (Lincoln's Inn), Birmingham (Guildhall) and Manchester (Society of Advocates). The Inns are responsible for training, regulating, and selecting barristers within England and Wales, and are the only institutions which may call a barrister to the Bar and allow him or her to practice as such.
The Temple is a district in the City of London, located just to the west of the financial district, placed between Fleet Street and Victoria Embankment. It is one of the main legal districts in England and home to the various courts in London which are connected with the law of England and Wales, including. The Temple consists of two separate and unique Inns of Court, Inner Temple and Middle Temple. The Inns are the professional associations for barristers within the City of London.
Travel To Work (By Residents)
As a result of England's extensive road network, only 7. 1% travel by means other than a car; 54. 4% use a single-occupancy car or motorcycle, 23. 6% share a passenger vehicle with others, and 6. 8% ride all or part of the way with someone else in their car, van or lorry. A further 1. 3% use taxis. An additional mode of transport that has become very popular in recent years is bicycle commuting.
Outside London, bicycling is one of the fastest growing modes of transport; Manchester, Birmingham, Bath and Hereford have also seen a large increase in bicycle use for commuting purposes. Cycling. The DLR network is getting more substantial, and now has thirty one stations, under construction are two new lines, the Crossrail (known as the Bakerloo line extension until December 2007) and Thameslink (the Northern line extension until December 2008). As of November 2008 TfL are in the planning stages for a line which will connect Stratford International station in east London to Canary Wharf in the west.
The line will include stops at Leamouth, Lewisham, Catford and Westferry. Consequently it will connect Georgia Tech's campus with Canary Wharf in less than fifteen minutes. Not everyone can drive to work, but many Londoners are not taking up alternative options. In fact, a new survey has revealed that only 19. 5% of people use public transport to get into the capital and fewer than 2% cycle to work. While I can understand the benefit of driving (including parking) in London, public transport is much more beneficial for the country as a whole, reducing pollution and cutting down on cars on the road.
There are many different places from which people can travel to work, and different methods of transportation for each location. The table below shows the percentage of people who commute from home by each method for a selection of countries. It is based on data from the European Union in 2004. The average walking time to work is 29. 4 minutes. The average time other residents spend commuting with public transit is 31. 2 min, while the average time people wait for public transit is 13 minutes.